COVID-19: No experimental vaccine has been shown to be effective against the new coronavirus in successful clinical trials, but at least 5.7 billion doses have already been previously purchased globally, and early shipments from Western groups have often been superseded by the states. United of Donald Trump.
Five vaccines (three Western and two Chinese) are in phase 3 of tests with thousands of people, and Russia said this Tuesday, August 11, to a general surprise that its candidate named “Sputnik V” (v as a vaccine) would be administered as soon as September to medical personnel, before clinical trials are completed.
Several vaccine developers have been funded to start manufacturing the doses in parallel with the trials, in order to be ready to deliver millions of doses in 2021, or even as early as October and late 2020.
The University of Oxford, associated with the Swedish-British pharmaceutical group AstraZeneca, expects to see results from September, while American Biotech Moderna, associated with the American Institutes of Health (NIH), aims for the end of the year, perhaps November.
• United States: 700 million doses
The Donald Trump administration was the first to award hundreds of millions of dollars in grants to vaccine developers, with nearly 500 million awarded to Johnson & Johnson as of March 30.
Operation “Warp Speed” explicitly aims to get enough to vaccinate all Americans starting in January 2021. Washington has laid its eggs in the largest number of baskets compared to other countries, betting on multiple technologies in hopes of that ‘at least one of them provides immunity.
To date, Washington has spent at least $ 9.4 billion on seven vaccine developers and has signed supply contracts with five of them for at least 700 million doses.
Companies or alliances funded in the United States: Johnson & Johnson, Moderna, Oxford / AztraZeneca, Novavax, Pfizer / BioNTech, Sanofi / GSK, Merck Sharp and Dohme (in the United States).
• Europe: 700 million doses
Two developers (Oxford / AztraZeneca and Sanofi / GSK) have signed or are in advanced negotiations with the European Commission to distribute up to 700 million doses of vaccine to each other.
The Commission told AFP that it is negotiating “at the moment very intensively with various vaccine developers.”
Please note that the “active substance” of the possible AstraZeneca vaccine will be produced by the French company Novasep in Belgium.
• United Kingdom, Japan, Brazil
The United Kingdom, Brexit forces, is negotiating separately and has already requested 250 million doses from four developers.
Japan has obtained 490 million doses from three suppliers, including 250 million from the US company Novavax. Japanese pharmaceutical giant Takeda has acquired the rights to the Novavax vaccine for the archipelago, which is subsidizing the operation. Therefore, this vaccine will be produced locally.
This is also the model chosen by Brazil: in addition to an order for 100 million doses of AstraZeneca, the country has an alliance with the Chinese Sinovac to manufacture up to 120 million doses of its “CoronaVac” on site, currently in testing. about the Brazilians.
• China, Russia
China is well advanced in clinical trials of two candidates (Sinovac, Sinopharm), but only a few international partnerships have been announced, including with Brazil and a possible one with Indonesia.
Russia, for its part, announced that 20 unidentified countries had reserved one billion doses of its Sputnik V vaccine, and that with the help of foreign partners, production capacities were already at 500 million doses. per year in five countries.
• Developing countries: 2.4 billion doses
The Coalition for Innovations in Epidemic Preparedness (Cepi), launched in 2017 by Norway, India, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Wellcome Trust, wants to ensure equitable access to future vaccines.
It has already invested $ 890 million to accelerate the development of nine projects, again with a view to diversifying risks.
It has pre-purchased 300 million doses of AstraZeneca for dozens of developing countries, with the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi).
To supply Asia and the world, billions of doses would have to leave the factories of the giant Serum Institute of India (SII), the world’s largest producer of vaccines (polio, measles …).
Novavax and AstraZeneca have separately signed licensing agreements with SII for the production of 1 billion doses each for India and developing countries … Provided, as always, they demonstrate efficacy during clinical trials.
See also in The HuffPost: Why has a coronavirus vaccine never been found?